More kewl stuff on PS!
This morning I ggogled:
Phosphatidylserine dopamine site:*.gov
You might try googling:
Phosphatidylserine dopamine site:*.edu
Using the "site:*.edu" returns only educational sites and the site:*.gov returns only government sites.
You can even use Phosphatidylserine dopamine site:*.nih.gov which is the National Institutes of Health.
There is some interesting information coming out on how dopamine, food, exercise and PS interact. The papers make really dry reading, but, it looks like PS has an effect on the way dopamine is handled by the body as well as effecting things like cortisol.
We know PS effects Cortisol levels, in one paper (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503954/) the researcher discovered that "Mean peak cortisol concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) were lower following PS (39 ± 1% and 35 ± 0%, respectively) when compared to placebo (p < 0.05). PS increased AUC for testosterone to cortisol ratio (184 ± 5%) when compared to placebo (p < 0.05). PS and placebo supplementation had no effect on lactate or growth hormone levels."
In another paper ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2170852 ) the researcher found, "The activity of brain cortex-derived phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) on the neuroendocrine and neurovegetative responses to physical stress was tested in 8 healthy men who underwent three experiments with a bicycle ergometer. According to a double-blind design, before starting the exercise, each subject received intravenously, within 10 min, 50 or 75 mg of BC-PS or a volume-matched placebo diluted in 100 ml of saline. Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise for plasma epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and glucose determinations. Blood pressure and heart rate were also recorded. Physical stress induced a clear-cut increase in plasma E, NE, ACTH, cortisol, GH and PRL, whereas no significant change was observed in plasma DA and glucose. Pretreatment with both 50 and 75 mg BC-PS significantly blunted the ACTH and cortisol responses to physical stress."
It appears that exercise developed dopamine levels were not affected by PS. If we review another study (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17507552) we find "Our findings suggest that the benefits of treadmill exercise on motor performance may be accompanied by changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission that are different in the injured (MPTP-lesioned) compared with the noninjured (saline) nigrostriatal system."
So, essentially, when our nervous systems become "injured" dopamine is less likely to be produced by exercise (and probably by eating) which causes people to eat more to gain the same satisfaction levels. It appears that in addition to influencing cortisol levels PS may also help repair damage done to nervous systems which cause the reduced dopamine levels and increased desire for food.
Here is the crux of it all.
There are going to be people (like me) who suffer from mildly high cortisol levels and may have immediate effects from taking PS. Losing 30 pounds in a couple of weeks for example.
There are going to be other people who are over eating because of damaged nervous systems and reduced dopamine output, these people may benefit over time from taking PS.
There is still nothing definite, my suggestion is:
If you are over eating try PS for a year and see if it reduces your desire for food.
If you can't lose weight and you are not over eating, try PS and see if your weight drops immediately.
I plan on ordering from:
But look around constantly for new sources, and watch out for what comes in PS bottles, you want to be careful of overdosing or interactions that can be caused by taking a PS "complex" or "Matrix". Try and find just PS.