I wrote this for a class and received a good grade for it. I'm sharing it here.
One of the most contentious subjects in the United States today is abortion, the act of terminating a child prior to birth. Abortion has a long history throughout the world and thousands of wise people have argued for and against the act of abortion from many different perspectives. As a Christian I take a Biblical perspective on the act of abortion. God has given us clear biblical instruction on how to judge acts of abortion. God invented choice. God is pro-choice.
Terminating a pregnancy is not expressly forbidden in the Bible. In Exodus 21:22 (KJV) the Bible tells us: “If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.” Prior to the advent of Christianity, the Jewish people extracted 613 Biblical Laws from the first 5 books of the Bible. These commandments are known as “The Mizvot”. Even though this passage seems to be a commandment concerning the termination of a pregnancy no such prohibition occurs within the 613 Mizvot.1
The Bible tells us that Judges shall determine the punishment for the termination of a pregnancy. In Exodus 21:22 (KJV) we are told “... shall pay as the judges determine.” Biblically, God gives us the law in the first five books of the Bible. In the Bible God established Judges to interpret the laws separate from the King or leader of the nation. In the United States, the Constitution has established a group of nine judges called the Supreme Court of the United States to interpret laws. In the Bible, John 19:11, Christ tells us that people in authority could have no power at all “except it were given thee from above”. In 1973 the Supreme Court of the United States determined that the punishment for either performing an abortion or having an abortion is nothing.2
The Bible addresses abortion. An abortion is the voluntary termination of a pregnancy. The Biblical passage, Exodus 21:22, addresses the termination of a pregnancy under many circumstances. “ If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her...”. The use of the word “strive”, in this context, means to deliberately struggle with difficulty. God could have used words more indicative of deliberate physical violence in this commandment, such as “fight”. God could have chosen words more indicative of deliberate abuse, such as “abuse”. God could have chosen to address this issue with many commandments as God did when addressing the death of an animal. Instead, God chose to address the termination of a pregnancy with a single, comprehensive, command.
The Bible tells us that women should never be held accountable for an abortion. The passage, Exodus 21:22, implies that God is well aware that a woman's pregnancy can be terminated and yet this is the only passage relating to terminating a pregnancy in the Bible. This passage deals strictly with the punishment of those who perform that termination. Since no Biblical instruction from God exists pertaining to the punishment of women who have “lost their fruit,” either voluntarily or through misfortune, women should not be punished nor held accountable in any way for terminating a pregnancy.
In the eyes of God a fetus is the fruit or the seed of a tree. In Exodus Moses reports the commandments given to Moses by God. In Exodus 21:22 God addresses the termination of a pregnancy through the use of an analogy, comparing a fetus to a piece of fruit. God has continued the analogy between humans and trees that is common in scripture. A person can be represented as a tree or the branch of a tree as Christ is represented in Isaiah. God uses the analogy of fruit to represent a fetus suggesting that God considers the fetus to be a seed rather than a person. God makes this “seed” analogy often in the Bible, through his servants and prophets: Psalms 127:3 “Lo, children are an heritage of the Lord: and the fruit of the womb is his reward”, Isaiah 13:18 “...they shall have no pity on the fruit of the womb; their eyes shall not spare children“, Hosea 9:16 “...yet will I slay even the beloved fruit of their womb”, Luke 1:42 “...blessed is the fruit of thy womb”. In Hosea in particular the analogy of using trees for people and fruit for fetuses is apparent. Hosea 9:16 “Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried up, they shall bear no fruit: yea, though they bring forth, yet will I slay even the beloved fruit of their womb.”
A seed is not a tree. A seed is one of the raw materials required to create a tree. In the Bible people are described as trees or branches. A fetus is described as fruit, the seed of a tree. A tree is a completed, living and growing organism. This analogy works for us today as it did thousands of years ago. Another analogy would be comparing a person to a car and a fetus to the iron ore required to build a car. The iron ore is the raw material which, when processed properly, becomes a car. When we examine a fetus, a seed or a piece of iron ore we can imagine the potential, yet, none of these is its own potential. A seed is not a tree. A piece of iron ore is not a car. A fetus is not a person.
Abortion is not murder. The Bible tells us not to kill (Exodus 10:13). God explicitly prohibits killing and yet allows for a woman's pregnancy to be terminated. Abortion is not explicitly prohibited. Killing is explicitly prohibited. If God considered a woman losing her fruit as a killing, the voluntary termination of a pregnancy would be explicitly prohibited as killing. God does not consider an abortion as killing or God would have expressly forbidden abortion.
God is pro-choice. God invented choice. God chose to create a world in which people had the ability to choose to follow the direction of God or their own minds. God could have created people without the ability to do anything which God does not approve of. Instead God created choice because God believes that people should be able to choose freely. While God does give us commandments about what choices we should make, God has not physically prevented us from making poor choices. The fact that God does not restrain us from making choices God has determined to be wrong indicates that God expects and desires us to choose for ourselves.
An abortion should not be punished. There is no punishment for sin in the New Testament. The first evidence of this is the analogy of the “Mote” in Matthew 7:3-4, “3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? 4Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? 5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye.” In this analogy we see that God believes that those who have sinned should not verbally berate other sinners. A second analogy is often mis-understood, John 8:6-7 “6This they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not. 7So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.“ People often use this passage incorrectly as if it refers to berating others. Stoning is an accepted form of punishment in many places even today and this passage directly addresses punishment. In this passage Christ was telling people that they had no right to punish someone.
The punishment people should assign to sin is nothing. Christ gives us specific instructions on how to handle someone who has sinned against us in Matthew 18 “5Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 16But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 17And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican.” There is no punishment involved in a transgression although some use this passage as an excuse for a congregation to shun a person. This passage expressly address the two individuals in conflict and does not require everyone within the congregation to shun an individual. The lack of punishment for an offense is not limited to the New Testament, Proverbs 17:9 tells us, “He that covereth a transgression seeketh love; but he that repeateth a matter separateth very friends.”
An abortion should be thoughtfully considered. Throughout the Bible the value of life is constantly reiterated. The Psalmist tells us that “children are an heritage of the Lord”. Since God addressed the concept of the termination of a pregnancy we know that God cares if and when someone terminates a pregnancy. Job tells us “...did not one fashion us in the womb?” Obviously God knows us from the moment of conception, yet, God chose to use the analogy of a seed to identify with a fetus. God chose not to command that the fruit of the womb be treated as one would treat a person. Seeds are important, planted they grow to become plants and trees from which many more seeds may grow. God understood the significance of the seed and the significance of the plant. Both are important, yet, a seed is not a plant. An abortion must be thoughtfully considered and undertaken only as necessary.
In this paper I have used a specific commandment given by God to Moses in Exodus 21:22 as well as analogies used by God to establish that God is pro-choice and abortion is not a sin against God. God does address the termination of a pregnancy in the Bible. God does not forbid abortions. God does not relate the termination of a pregnancy to murder in any way. This paper presents the Biblical facts concerning the termination of a pregnancy as clearly as possible. As a Christian the misuse and twisting of Biblical commandments to support the concept that “abortion is murder” is very troubling to me. In conclusion I leave the reader with one final thought, Matthew 15:8-9, “8 This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. 9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.”